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カーネルパニック:動作するinitが見つかりません。 init =オプションをカーネルに渡してみてください

カーネルの動作と内部を理解し始めたばかりです。まず、カーネルをビルドして起動しようとしています。

X86アーキテクチャのシミュレーターとしてqemuを使用しています。

私はこの記事をフォローしています(これは腕用です): http://www.kaizou.org/2016/09/boot-minimal-linux-qemu/

次のコマンドを使用してカーネルを構築しました。

cd kernel_4.9
make x86_64-defconfig
make -j8

これでb​​zImageが得られます。ここで、実行可能ファイルとしてhelloworldだけを使用してダミーのinitramfsを開発しました。これは init.c

#include <stdio.h>

void main()
{
    printf("Tiny init - Hello World...\n");
    while(1);
}

initramfsをパックします

gcc -static init.c -o init
chmod +x init
echo init | cpio -o --format=newc > initramfs

今qemuを実行します:

qemu-system-x86_64 -kernel ~/data/linux/Arch/x86/boot/bzImage -append 'console=ttyS0' -serial stdio -initrd ~/data/linux/Arch/x86/boot/initramfs

このエラーが発生します:

[    1.158556] Write protecting the kernel text: 8528k
[    1.158842] Write protecting the kernel read-only data: 2396k
[    1.163684] Failed to execute /init (error -2)
[    1.163973] Kernel panic - not syncing: No working init found.  Try passing init= option to kernel. See Linux Documentation/init.txt for guidance.
[    1.164026] CPU: 0 PID: 1 Comm: swapper/0 Not tainted 4.9.0 #3
[    1.164026] Hardware name: QEMU Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996), BIOS Ubuntu-1.8.2-1ubuntu1 04/01/2014
[    1.164026]  c78a5f78 c12dd8e4 c184c900 00000000 c78a5f98 c110d8a0 c19b465c c1c400a0
[    1.164026]  c19a5f8c c184c930 00000000 00000000 c78a5fac c184ca18 c19a5fd8 c19a5bc1
[    1.164026]  fffffffe 00000000 c1851537 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
[    1.164026] Call Trace:
[    1.164026]  [<c12dd8e4>] dump_stack+0x47/0x63
[    1.164026]  [<c184c900>] ? rest_init+0x30/0x60
[    1.164026]  [<c110d8a0>] panic+0x93/0x1bc
[    1.164026]  [<c184c930>] ? rest_init+0x60/0x60
[    1.164026]  [<c184ca18>] kernel_init+0xe8/0x100
[    1.164026]  [<c1851537>] ret_from_fork+0x1b/0x28
[    1.164026] Kernel Offset: disabled
[    1.164026] ---[ end Kernel panic - not syncing: No working init found.  Try passing init= option to kernel. See Linux Documentation/init.txt for guidance.

完全なブートシリアルログは次のとおりです。

Failed to initialize module: /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/qemu/block-iscsi.so
Note: only modules from the same build can be loaded.
Failed to initialize module: /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/qemu/block-curl.so
Note: only modules from the same build can be loaded.
Failed to initialize module: /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/qemu/block-rbd.so
Note: only modules from the same build can be loaded.
Failed to initialize module: /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/qemu/block-dmg.so
Note: only modules from the same build can be loaded.
warning: TCG doesn't support requested feature: CPUID.01H:ECX.vmx [bit 5]
[    0.000000] Linux version 4.9.0 ([email protected]) (gcc version 4.8.5 (Ubuntu 4.8.5-4ubuntu2) ) #3 SMP Tue May 15 14:30:37 IST 2018
[    0.000000] x86/fpu: Legacy x87 FPU detected.
[    0.000000] x86/fpu: Using 'eager' FPU context switches.
[    0.000000] e820: BIOS-provided physical RAM map:
[    0.000000] BIOS-e820: [mem 0x0000000000000000-0x000000000009fbff] usable
[    0.000000] BIOS-e820: [mem 0x000000000009fc00-0x000000000009ffff] reserved
[    0.000000] BIOS-e820: [mem 0x00000000000f0000-0x00000000000fffff] reserved
[    0.000000] BIOS-e820: [mem 0x0000000000100000-0x0000000007fdffff] usable
[    0.000000] BIOS-e820: [mem 0x0000000007fe0000-0x0000000007ffffff] reserved
[    0.000000] BIOS-e820: [mem 0x00000000fffc0000-0x00000000ffffffff] reserved
[    0.000000] Notice: NX (Execute Disable) protection cannot be enabled: non-PAE kernel!
[    0.000000] SMBIOS 2.8 present.
[    0.000000] e820: last_pfn = 0x7fe0 max_Arch_pfn = 0x100000
[    0.000000] x86/PAT: Configuration [0-7]: WB  WC  UC- UC  WB  WC  UC- WT  
[    0.000000] found SMP MP-table at [mem 0x000f6640-0x000f664f] mapped at [c00f6640]
[    0.000000] Scanning 1 areas for low memory corruption
[    0.000000] RAMDISK: [mem 0x07f02000-0x07fdffff]
[    0.000000] ACPI: Early table checksum verification disabled
[    0.000000] ACPI: RSDP 0x00000000000F6460 000014 (v00 BOCHS )
[    0.000000] ACPI: RSDT 0x0000000007FE16EE 000034 (v01 BOCHS  BXPCRSDT 00000001 BXPC 00000001)
[    0.000000] ACPI: FACP 0x0000000007FE0C14 000074 (v01 BOCHS  BXPCFACP 00000001 BXPC 00000001)
[    0.000000] ACPI: DSDT 0x0000000007FE0040 000BD4 (v01 BOCHS  BXPCDSDT 00000001 BXPC 00000001)
[    0.000000] ACPI: FACS 0x0000000007FE0000 000040
[    0.000000] ACPI: SSDT 0x0000000007FE0C88 0009B6 (v01 BOCHS  BXPCSSDT 00000001 BXPC 00000001)
[    0.000000] ACPI: APIC 0x0000000007FE163E 000078 (v01 BOCHS  BXPCAPIC 00000001 BXPC 00000001)
[    0.000000] ACPI: HPET 0x0000000007FE16B6 000038 (v01 BOCHS  BXPCHPET 00000001 BXPC 00000001)
[    0.000000] 0MB HIGHMEM available.
[    0.000000] 127MB LOWMEM available.
[    0.000000]   mapped low ram: 0 - 07fe0000
[    0.000000]   low ram: 0 - 07fe0000
[    0.000000] Zone ranges:
[    0.000000]   DMA      [mem 0x0000000000001000-0x0000000000ffffff]
[    0.000000]   Normal   [mem 0x0000000001000000-0x0000000007fdffff]
[    0.000000]   HighMem  empty
[    0.000000] Movable zone start for each node
[    0.000000] Early memory node ranges
[    0.000000]   node   0: [mem 0x0000000000001000-0x000000000009efff]
[    0.000000]   node   0: [mem 0x0000000000100000-0x0000000007fdffff]
[    0.000000] Initmem setup node 0 [mem 0x0000000000001000-0x0000000007fdffff]
[    0.000000] Using APIC driver default
[    0.000000] ACPI: PM-Timer IO Port: 0x608
[    0.000000] ACPI: LAPIC_NMI (acpi_id[0xff] dfl dfl lint[0x1])
[    0.000000] IOAPIC[0]: apic_id 0, version 17, address 0xfec00000, GSI 0-23
[    0.000000] ACPI: INT_SRC_OVR (bus 0 bus_irq 0 global_irq 2 dfl dfl)
[    0.000000] ACPI: INT_SRC_OVR (bus 0 bus_irq 5 global_irq 5 high level)
[    0.000000] ACPI: INT_SRC_OVR (bus 0 bus_irq 9 global_irq 9 high level)
[    0.000000] ACPI: INT_SRC_OVR (bus 0 bus_irq 10 global_irq 10 high level)
[    0.000000] ACPI: INT_SRC_OVR (bus 0 bus_irq 11 global_irq 11 high level)
[    0.000000] Using ACPI (MADT) for SMP configuration information
[    0.000000] smpboot: Allowing 1 CPUs, 0 hotplug CPUs
[    0.000000] PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0x00000000-0x00000fff]
[    0.000000] PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0x0009f000-0x0009ffff]
[    0.000000] PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0x000a0000-0x000effff]
[    0.000000] PM: Registered nosave memory: [mem 0x000f0000-0x000fffff]
[    0.000000] e820: [mem 0x08000000-0xfffbffff] available for PCI devices
[    0.000000] clocksource: refined-jiffies: mask: 0xffffffff max_cycles: 0xffffffff, max_idle_ns: 1910969940391419 ns
[    0.000000] setup_percpu: NR_CPUS:8 nr_cpumask_bits:8 nr_cpu_ids:1 nr_node_ids:1
[    0.000000] percpu: Embedded 20 pages/cpu @c7deb000 s50284 r0 d31636 u81920
[    0.000000] Built 1 zonelists in Zone order, mobility grouping on.  Total pages: 32382
[    0.000000] Kernel command line: console=ttyS0
[    0.000000] PID hash table entries: 512 (order: -1, 2048 bytes)
[    0.000000] Dentry cache hash table entries: 16384 (order: 4, 65536 bytes)
[    0.000000] Inode-cache hash table entries: 8192 (order: 3, 32768 bytes)
[    0.000000] Initializing CPU#0
[    0.000000] Initializing HighMem for node 0 (00000000:00000000)
[    0.000000] Memory: 115236K/130552K available (8524K kernel code, 784K rwdata, 2388K rodata, 728K init, 608K bss, 15316K reserved, 0K cma-reserved, 0K highmem)
[    0.000000] virtual kernel memory layout:
[    0.000000]     fixmap  : 0xfff16000 - 0xfffff000   ( 932 kB)
[    0.000000]     pkmap   : 0xff800000 - 0xffc00000   (4096 kB)
[    0.000000]     vmalloc : 0xc87e0000 - 0xff7fe000   ( 880 MB)
[    0.000000]     lowmem  : 0xc0000000 - 0xc7fe0000   ( 127 MB)
[    0.000000]       .init : 0xc1b71000 - 0xc1c27000   ( 728 kB)
[    0.000000]       .data : 0xc185349f - 0xc1b6f1e0   (3183 kB)
[    0.000000]       .text : 0xc1000000 - 0xc185349f   (8525 kB)
[    0.000000] Checking if this processor honours the WP bit even in supervisor mode...Ok.
[    0.000000] SLUB: HWalign=64, Order=0-3, MinObjects=0, CPUs=1, Nodes=1
[    0.000000] Hierarchical RCU implementation.
[    0.000000]  Build-time adjustment of leaf fanout to 32.
[    0.000000]  RCU restricting CPUs from NR_CPUS=8 to nr_cpu_ids=1.
[    0.000000] RCU: Adjusting geometry for rcu_fanout_leaf=32, nr_cpu_ids=1
[    0.000000] NR_IRQS:2304 nr_irqs:256 16
[    0.000000] Console: colour VGA+ 80x25
[    0.000000] console [ttyS0] enabled
[    0.000000] tsc: Fast TSC calibration using PIT
[    0.000000] tsc: Detected 3990.752 MHz processor
[    0.003738] Calibrating delay loop (skipped), value calculated using timer frequency.. 7981.50 BogoMIPS (lpj=3990752)
[    0.004100] pid_max: default: 32768 minimum: 301
[    0.004298] ACPI: Core revision 20160831
[    0.018424] ACPI: 2 ACPI AML tables successfully acquired and loaded
[    0.019070] Security Framework initialized
[    0.019253] SELinux:  Initializing.
[    0.019731] Mount-cache hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.019863] Mountpoint-cache hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.027879] mce: CPU supports 10 MCE banks
[    0.028880] Last level iTLB entries: 4KB 0, 2MB 0, 4MB 0
[    0.028964] Last level dTLB entries: 4KB 0, 2MB 0, 4MB 0, 1GB 0
[    0.066432] Freeing SMP alternatives memory: 32K (c1c27000 - c1c2f000)
[    0.072781] smpboot: APIC(0) Converting physical 0 to logical package 0
[    0.072931] smpboot: Max logical packages: 1
[    0.073183] Enabling APIC mode:  Flat.  Using 1 I/O APICs
[    0.075427] ..TIMER: vector=0x30 apic1=0 pin1=2 apic2=-1 pin2=-1
[    0.086000] smpboot: CPU0: AMD QEMU Virtual CPU version 2.5+ (family: 0x6, model: 0x6, stepping: 0x3)
[    0.086000] Performance Events: PMU not available due to virtualization, using software events only.
[    0.092173] Huh? What family is it: 0x6?!
[    0.093089] x86: Booted up 1 node, 1 CPUs
[    0.093224] smpboot: Total of 1 processors activated (7981.50 BogoMIPS)
[    0.098310] devtmpfs: initialized
[    0.102509] clocksource: jiffies: mask: 0xffffffff max_cycles: 0xffffffff, max_idle_ns: 1911260446275000 ns
[    0.103555] RTC time: 11:32:24, date: 05/15/18
[    0.106305] NET: Registered protocol family 16
[    0.113898] kworker/u2:0 (16) used greatest stack depth: 7104 bytes left
[    0.116939] cpuidle: using governor menu
[    0.117699] ACPI: bus type PCI registered
[    0.120641] PCI: PCI BIOS revision 2.10 entry at 0xfd40f, last bus=0
[    0.120800] PCI: Using configuration type 1 for base access
[    0.128384] kworker/u2:1 (45) used greatest stack depth: 6840 bytes left
[    0.205191] HugeTLB registered 4 MB page size, pre-allocated 0 pages
[    0.207229] ACPI: Added _OSI(Module Device)
[    0.207322] ACPI: Added _OSI(Processor Device)
[    0.207411] ACPI: Added _OSI(3.0 _SCP Extensions)
[    0.207481] ACPI: Added _OSI(Processor Aggregator Device)
[    0.219594] ACPI: Interpreter enabled
[    0.220185] ACPI: (supports S0 S3 S4 S5)
[    0.220292] ACPI: Using IOAPIC for interrupt routing
[    0.220749] PCI: Using Host bridge windows from ACPI; if necessary, use "pci=nocrs" and report a bug
[    0.256389] ACPI: PCI Root Bridge [PCI0] (domain 0000 [bus 00-ff])
[    0.257153] acpi PNP0A03:00: _OSC: OS supports [ASPM ClockPM Segments]
[    0.257559] acpi PNP0A03:00: _OSC failed (AE_NOT_FOUND); disabling ASPM
[    0.258039] acpi PNP0A03:00: fail to add MMCONFIG information, can't access extended PCI configuration space under this bridge.
[    0.260137] PCI Host bridge to bus 0000:00
[    0.260323] pci_bus 0000:00: root bus resource [io  0x0000-0x0cf7 window]
[    0.260489] pci_bus 0000:00: root bus resource [io  0x0d00-0xffff window]
[    0.260648] pci_bus 0000:00: root bus resource [mem 0x000a0000-0x000bffff window]
[    0.260810] pci_bus 0000:00: root bus resource [mem 0x08000000-0xfebfffff window]
[    0.261106] pci_bus 0000:00: root bus resource [bus 00-ff]
[    0.266648] pci 0000:00:01.1: legacy IDE quirk: reg 0x10: [io  0x01f0-0x01f7]
[    0.267038] pci 0000:00:01.1: legacy IDE quirk: reg 0x14: [io  0x03f6]
[    0.267212] pci 0000:00:01.1: legacy IDE quirk: reg 0x18: [io  0x0170-0x0177]
[    0.267388] pci 0000:00:01.1: legacy IDE quirk: reg 0x1c: [io  0x0376]
[    0.269092] pci 0000:00:01.3: quirk: [io  0x0600-0x063f] claimed by PIIX4 ACPI
[    0.269271] pci 0000:00:01.3: quirk: [io  0x0700-0x070f] claimed by PIIX4 SMB
[    0.287173] ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKA] (IRQs 5 *10 11)
[    0.287967] ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKB] (IRQs 5 *10 11)
[    0.288550] ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKC] (IRQs 5 10 *11)
[    0.289246] ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKD] (IRQs 5 10 *11)
[    0.289629] ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKS] (IRQs *9)
[    0.291383] ACPI: Enabled 16 GPEs in block 00 to 0F
[    0.294509] vgaarb: setting as boot device: PCI:0000:00:02.0
[    0.294694] vgaarb: device added: PCI:0000:00:02.0,decodes=io+mem,owns=io+mem,locks=none
[    0.294864] vgaarb: loaded
[    0.295054] vgaarb: bridge control possible 0000:00:02.0
[    0.296564] SCSI subsystem initialized
[    0.298270] ACPI: bus type USB registered
[    0.298918] usbcore: registered new interface driver usbfs
[    0.299384] usbcore: registered new interface driver hub
[    0.299663] usbcore: registered new device driver usb
[    0.300606] pps_core: LinuxPPS API ver. 1 registered
[    0.300720] pps_core: Software ver. 5.3.6 - Copyright 2005-2007 Rodolfo Giometti <[email protected]>
[    0.301225] PTP clock support registered
[    0.304522] Advanced Linux Sound Architecture Driver Initialized.
[    0.305080] PCI: Using ACPI for IRQ routing
[    0.312927] NetLabel: Initializing
[    0.313058] NetLabel:  domain hash size = 128
[    0.313185] NetLabel:  protocols = UNLABELED CIPSOv4
[    0.313816] NetLabel:  unlabeled traffic allowed by default
[    0.316063] clocksource: Switched to clocksource refined-jiffies
[    0.381394] VFS: Disk quotas dquot_6.6.0
[    0.381690] VFS: Dquot-cache hash table entries: 1024 (order 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.383559] pnp: PnP ACPI init
[    0.389350] pnp: PnP ACPI: found 6 devices
[    0.402753] kworker/u2:1 (571) used greatest stack depth: 6796 bytes left
[    0.452615] clocksource: acpi_pm: mask: 0xffffff max_cycles: 0xffffff, max_idle_ns: 2085701024 ns
[    0.453280] clocksource: Switched to clocksource acpi_pm
[    0.455402] NET: Registered protocol family 2
[    0.459357] TCP established hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.459595] TCP bind hash table entries: 1024 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
[    0.459779] TCP: Hash tables configured (established 1024 bind 1024)
[    0.460212] UDP hash table entries: 256 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
[    0.460409] UDP-Lite hash table entries: 256 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
[    0.461374] NET: Registered protocol family 1
[    0.462874] RPC: Registered named UNIX socket transport module.
[    0.463082] RPC: Registered udp transport module.
[    0.463192] RPC: Registered tcp transport module.
[    0.463330] RPC: Registered tcp NFSv4.1 backchannel transport module.
[    0.463523] pci 0000:00:00.0: Limiting direct PCI/PCI transfers
[    0.463697] pci 0000:00:01.0: PIIX3: Enabling Passive Release
[    0.463897] pci 0000:00:01.0: Activating ISA DMA hang workarounds
[    0.464260] pci 0000:00:02.0: Video device with shadowed ROM at [mem 0x000c0000-0x000dffff]
[    0.467306] Unpacking initramfs...
[    0.473860] Freeing initrd memory: 888K (c7f02000 - c7fe0000)
[    0.476653] Scanning for low memory corruption every 60 seconds
[    0.482223] futex hash table entries: 256 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
[    0.482606] audit: initializing netlink subsys (disabled)
[    0.483232] audit: type=2000 audit(1526383943.481:1): initialized
[    0.487391] workingset: timestamp_bits=30 max_order=15 bucket_order=0
[    0.521354] NFS: Registering the id_resolver key type
[    0.521913] Key type id_resolver registered
[    0.522513] Key type id_legacy registered
[    0.531936] Block layer SCSI generic (bsg) driver version 0.4 loaded (major 251)
[    0.532322] io scheduler noop registered
[    0.532530] io scheduler deadline registered
[    0.532992] io scheduler cfq registered (default)
[    0.535402] pci_hotplug: PCI Hot Plug PCI Core version: 0.5
[    0.537948] input: Power Button as /devices/LNXSYSTM:00/LNXPWRBN:00/input/input0
[    0.538556] ACPI: Power Button [PWRF]
[    0.542194] Serial: 8250/16550 driver, 4 ports, IRQ sharing enabled
[    0.564322] 00:05: ttyS0 at I/O 0x3f8 (irq = 4, base_baud = 115200) is a 16550A
[    0.570759] hpet_acpi_add: no address or irqs in _CRS
[    0.572175] Non-volatile memory driver v1.3
[    0.572626] Linux agpgart interface v0.103
[    0.574796] [drm] Initialized
[    0.590888] loop: module loaded
[    0.600539] scsi Host0: ata_piix
[    0.602350] scsi Host1: ata_piix
[    0.602865] ata1: PATA max MWDMA2 cmd 0x1f0 ctl 0x3f6 bmdma 0xc040 irq 14
[    0.603187] ata2: PATA max MWDMA2 cmd 0x170 ctl 0x376 bmdma 0xc048 irq 15
[    0.605942] e100: Intel(R) PRO/100 Network Driver, 3.5.24-k2-NAPI
[    0.606265] e100: Copyright(c) 1999-2006 Intel Corporation
[    0.606537] e1000: Intel(R) PRO/1000 Network Driver - version 7.3.21-k8-NAPI
[    0.606639] e1000: Copyright (c) 1999-2006 Intel Corporation.
[    0.770123] ata2.00: ATAPI: QEMU DVD-ROM, 2.5+, max UDMA/100
[    0.771169] ata2.00: configured for MWDMA2
[    0.780823] scsi 1:0:0:0: CD-ROM            QEMU     QEMU DVD-ROM     2.5+ PQ: 0 ANSI: 5
[    0.797856] sr 1:0:0:0: [sr0] scsi3-mmc drive: 4x/4x cd/rw xa/form2 tray
[    0.798184] cdrom: Uniform CD-ROM driver Revision: 3.20
[    0.801572] sr 1:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg0 type 5
[    0.816855] ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKC] enabled at IRQ 11
[    1.093251] e1000 0000:00:03.0 eth0: (PCI:33MHz:32-bit) 52:54:00:12:34:56
[    1.093505] e1000 0000:00:03.0 eth0: Intel(R) PRO/1000 Network Connection
[    1.093945] e1000e: Intel(R) PRO/1000 Network Driver - 3.2.6-k
[    1.094092] e1000e: Copyright(c) 1999 - 2015 Intel Corporation.
[    1.094383] sky2: driver version 1.30
[    1.096254] ehci_hcd: USB 2.0 'Enhanced' Host Controller (EHCI) Driver
[    1.096381] ehci-pci: EHCI PCI platform driver
[    1.096606] ohci_hcd: USB 1.1 'Open' Host Controller (OHCI) Driver
[    1.096897] ohci-pci: OHCI PCI platform driver
[    1.097279] uhci_hcd: USB Universal Host Controller Interface driver
[    1.098362] usbcore: registered new interface driver usblp
[    1.098982] usbcore: registered new interface driver usb-storage
[    1.099966] i8042: PNP: PS/2 Controller [PNP0303:KBD,PNP0f13:MOU] at 0x60,0x64 irq 1,12
[    1.101934] serio: i8042 KBD port at 0x60,0x64 irq 1
[    1.102277] serio: i8042 AUX port at 0x60,0x64 irq 12
[    1.103964] mousedev: PS/2 mouse device common for all mice
[    1.106301] input: AT Translated Set 2 keyboard as /devices/platform/i8042/serio0/input/input1
[    1.109219] rtc_cmos 00:00: RTC can wake from S4
[    1.111243] random: fast init done
[    1.112992] rtc_cmos 00:00: rtc core: registered rtc_cmos as rtc0
[    1.113528] rtc_cmos 00:00: alarms up to one day, 114 bytes nvram
[    1.115407] device-mapper: ioctl: 4.35.0-ioctl (2016-06-23) initialised: [email protected]
[    1.116222] hidraw: raw HID events driver (C) Jiri Kosina
[    1.121501] usbcore: registered new interface driver usbhid
[    1.121599] usbhid: USB HID core driver
[    1.132988] Netfilter messages via NETLINK v0.30.
[    1.133823] nf_conntrack version 0.5.0 (2048 buckets, 8192 max)
[    1.136193] ctnetlink v0.93: registering with nfnetlink.
[    1.138450] ip_tables: (C) 2000-2006 Netfilter Core Team
[    1.139693] Initializing XFRM netlink socket
[    1.141378] NET: Registered protocol family 10
[    1.145915] ip6_tables: (C) 2000-2006 Netfilter Core Team
[    1.147303] sit: IPv6, IPv4 and MPLS over IPv4 tunneling driver
[    1.149505] NET: Registered protocol family 17
[    1.149894] Key type dns_resolver registered
[    1.151507] microcode: AMD CPU family 0x6 not supported
[    1.151630] Using IPI No-Shortcut mode
[    1.153701] registered taskstats version 1
[    1.155785]   Magic number: 2:763:529
[    1.156245] console [netcon0] enabled
[    1.156330] netconsole: network logging started
[    1.157653] ALSA device list:
[    1.157719]   No soundcards found.
[    1.186333] Freeing unused kernel memory: 728K (c1b71000 - c1c27000)
[    1.186687] Write protecting the kernel text: 8528k
[    1.186986] Write protecting the kernel read-only data: 2396k
[    1.191970] Failed to execute /init (error -8)
[    1.192330] Kernel panic - not syncing: No working init found.  Try passing init= option to kernel. See Linux Documentation/init.txt for guidance.
[    1.192664] CPU: 0 PID: 1 Comm: swapper/0 Not tainted 4.9.0 #3
[    1.192756] Hardware name: QEMU Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996), BIOS Ubuntu-1.8.2-1ubuntu1 04/01/2014
[    1.192992]  c78a5f78 c12dd8e4 c184c900 00000000 c78a5f98 c110d8a0 c19b465c c1c400a0
[    1.193079]  c19a5f8c c184c930 00000000 00000000 c78a5fac c184ca18 c19a5fd8 c19a5bc1
[    1.193079]  fffffff8 00000000 c1851537 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
[    1.193079] Call Trace:
[    1.193079]  [<c12dd8e4>] dump_stack+0x47/0x63
[    1.193079]  [<c184c900>] ? rest_init+0x30/0x60
[    1.193079]  [<c110d8a0>] panic+0x93/0x1bc
[    1.193079]  [<c184c930>] ? rest_init+0x60/0x60
[    1.193079]  [<c184ca18>] kernel_init+0xe8/0x100
[    1.193079]  [<c1851537>] ret_from_fork+0x1b/0x28
[    1.193079] Kernel Offset: disabled
[    1.193079] ---[ end Kernel panic - not syncing: No working init found.  Try passing init= option to kernel. See Linux Documentation/init.txt for guidance.

私は過去2日間に同様の問題について議論しているいくつかの投稿を見ましたが、どれも役に立ちませんでした。実際、私が参照としてフォローしたブログ投稿は、著者や他の人々のために働いています(異なるアーキテクチャのためである可能性があります)。カーネルリポジトリでDocumentation/init.txtも参照しました。欲求不満でやる気を失っています。誰かが私を導き、私が続けるのを手伝ってくれませんか?

4
Insane Coder

奇妙なことが1つあります。x86_64-defconfigという名前の構成ファイルを使用してカーネルをコンパイルしていますが、カーネルは32ビットモードで実行されています。また、おそらく64ビットLinuxシステムでinitをコンパイルしていると思いますが、これが問題だと思います。 2番目のこと-最初の部分では/ initがinitramfsで見つからないため、ログの2つの異なる部分を指定しましたが、2番目の部分ではカーネルが「execformaterror」を報告します。

結論:カーネルをコンパイルする本当に 64ビット用にコンパイルするか、initを32ビットアプリケーションとしてコンパイルします(-m32をgccに切り替えます)。

1
user2699113

initバイナリを、 通常の場所 カーネルが検索するのではなく、initramfsのルートにパックしているようです。

/sbin/init
/etc/init
/bin/init
/bin/sh

initバイナリをこれらのディレクトリのいずれかに移動するか、表示されるエラーメッセージに示されているように、カーネルパラメータとしてinit=/initを指定してみてください。

2
tangrs